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INTRAS IT DICTIONARY / A-Z

A

Analog Line - A wire (cable) that carries an analog signal.

It would probably be easiest to give you some examples of an analog line. Usually the phone you have in your house is an analog line. Another example would be a typical fax line. Another example would be the typical line that your computer would use for a dial up connection. Perhaps the debit machine would use an analog line, but some might use a computer connection also. I just read on one web site that if your phone complies with "complies with part 68, FCC Rules" and a Ringer Equivalence Number (REN), then the phone and the line are analog.

So generally if the phone in your house will work on that line then it is analog, if it won't then likely it is digital. Digital is a line where the voice has been converted to 1's and 0's and the reconverted back to voice at the other end of the line. Digital lines are generally use in business's, although a business might have either digital or analog lines. Notice on this page http:/www.telephonemagic.com/meridian_centrex_phones.htm although all the phones are considered business phones, the digital phones are on the left and and the analog phones are on the right.

Then again your cordless phone in your house might be digital from the base to the handset, but still the line is analog.

Anti Spyware - is a software that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge and that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, or that asserts control over a computer without the consumer's knowledge [1] "Spyware" is mostly classified into four types: system monitors, trojans, adware, and tracking cookies.[2] Spyware is mostly used for the purposes such as; tracking and storing internet users' movements on the web; serving up pop-up ads to internet users.

Whenever spyware is used for malicious purposes, its presence is typically hidden from the user and can be difficult to detect. Some spyware, such as keyloggers, may be installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer intentionally in order to monitor users.

While the term spyware suggests software that monitors a user's computing, the functions of spyware can extend beyond simple monitoring. Spyware can collect almost any type of data, including personal information like Internet surfing habits, user logins, and bank or credit account information. Spyware can also interfere with user control of a computer by installing additional software or redirecting Web browsers. Some spyware can change computer settings, which can result in slow Internet connection speeds, un-authorized changes in browser settings, or changes to software settings. Sometimes, spyware is included along with genuine software, and may come from a malicious website. In response to the emergence of spyware, a small industry has sprung up dealing in anti-spyware software. Running anti-spyware software has become a widely recognized element of computer security practices for computers, especially those running Microsoft Windows. A number of jurisdictions have passed anti-spyware laws, which usually target any software that is surreptitiously installed to control a user's computer.

B

Business intelligence (BI) - is a set of theories, methodologies, processes, architectures, and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information for business purposes. BI can handle large amounts of information to help identify and develop new opportunities. Making use of new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy can provide a competitive market advantage and long-term stability.

BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies are reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics.

Though the term business intelligence is sometimes a synonym for competitive intelligence (because they both support decision making), BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence gathers, analyzes and disseminates information with a topical focus on company competitors. If understood broadly, business intelligence can include the subset of competitive intelligence.

C

Call Accounting - software is the single best way to increasing productivity and lowering telephone operating costs. Call accounting software is a Windows based software program that collects, analyzes, and reports on calling activities. call accounting software produces over 60 reports which enable you to analyze calls and process call data for telephone accounting and call center management. Some of the reports include: Extension Detail, Account Detail, Department Detail, Extension Details, Division Summaries, Call Volume By Hour, Most Expensive and Longest Calls, Most Number Of Calls Made Per Extension ( Very Valuable to Telemarketing Sales Managers), Trunk Utilization Totals (excellent for ReConfiguring System Trunks), and Carrier Comparison ( which allows you to compare your phone bill with actual usage).

Co-Location Data Center - A colocation centre or colocation center (also spelled co-location, collocation, colo, or coloc) is a type of data centre where equipment space and bandwidth are available for rental to retail customers. Colocation facilities provide space, power, cooling, and physical security for the server, storage, and networking equipment of other firms—and connect them to a variety of telecommunications and network service providers—with a minimum of cost and complexity.

Contact Center - is a facility used by companies to manage all client contact through a variety of mediums such as telephone, fax, letter, e-mail and increasingly, online live chat.

Distinct from call centres, that purely handle telephone correspondence, contact centres have a variety of roles that combine to provide an all encompassing solution to client, and customer contact. Contact centres, along with call centres and communication centres all fall under a larger umbrella labelled as the contact centre management industry. This is becoming a rapidly growing recruitment sector in itself, as the capabilities of contact centres expand and thus require ever more complex systems and highly skilled operational and management staff.

The majority of large companies use contact centres as a means of managing their customer interaction. These centres can be operated in two major ways, the first, by having an in house department responsible for the day to day communications with customers, the second to outsource customer interaction to a third party agency.

D

Data Center Convergence - Converged infrastructure packages multiple information technology (IT) components into a single, optimized computing solution. Components of a converged infrastructure solution include servers, data storage devices, networking equipment and software for IT infrastructure management, automation and orchestration.

Converged infrastructure is used by IT organizations to centralize the management of IT resources, consolidate systems, increase resource utilization rates, and lower costs. These objectives are enabled by the creation of pools of computers, storage and networking resources that can be shared by multiple applications and managed in a collective manner using policy driven processes.

IT vendors and industry analysts use various terms to describe the concept of a converged infrastructure. These include converged system, unified computing, fabric-based computing, and dynamic infrastructure

Data Deduplication - In computing, data deduplication is a specialized data compression technique for eliminating duplicate copies of repeating data. Related and somewhat synonymous terms are intelligent (data) compression and single-instance (data) storage. The technique is used to improve storage utilization and can also be applied to network data transfers to reduce the number of bytes that must be sent. In the deduplication process, unique chunks of data, or byte patterns, are identified and stored during a process of analysis. As the analysis continues, other chunks are compared to the stored copy and whenever a match occurs, the redundant chunk is replaced with a small reference that points to the stored chunk. Given that the same byte pattern may occur dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of times (the match frequency is dependent on the chunk size), the amount of data that must be stored or transferred can be greatly reduced.

This type of deduplication is different from that performed by standard file-compression tools, such as LZ77 and LZ78. Whereas these tools identify short repeated substrings inside individual files, the intent of storage-based data deduplication is to inspect large volumes of data and identify large sections – such as entire files or large sections of files – that are identical, in order to store only one copy of it. This copy may be additionally compressed by single-file compression techniques. For example a typical email system might contain 100 instances of the same one megabyte (MB) file attachment. Each time the email platform is backed up, all 100 instances of the attachment are saved, requiring 100 MB storage space. With data deduplication, only one instance of the attachment is actually stored; the subsequent instances are referenced back to the saved copy for deduplication ratio of roughly 100 to 1.

Desktop Device Imaging - Desktop imaging software is used by information technology departments and home users to maintain copies of entire hard drives by creating an image of a computer's data. Desktop imaging applications, also referred to as disk imaging software, can be used to deploy programs to new computers and update applications on existing machines.

E

E-commerce - (electronic-commerce) refers to business over the Internet. Web sites such as Amazon.com, Buy.com, and eBay are all e-commerce sites. The two major forms of e-commerce are Business-to-Consumer (B2C) and Business-to-Business (B2B). While companies like Amazon.com cater mostly to consumers, other companies provide goods and services exclusively to other businesses. The terms "e-business" and "e-tailing" are often used synonymously with e-commerce. They refer to the same idea; they are just used to confuse people trying to learn computer terms.

ECC - Stands for "Error Correction Code." ECC is used to verify data transmissions by locating and correcting transmission errors. It is commonly used by RAM chips that include forward error correction (FEC), which ensures all the data being sent to and from the RAM is transmitted correctly.

ECC RAM or memory is similar to parity RAM, which includes a parity bit that validates the data being sent. The parity bit is a redundant binary value of 1 or 0 that is sent along with the data. If the parity bit does not match the value of the data it represents, it indicates an error in the transmission and the data may need to be resent. ECC works in a similar way, but uses a more advanced error correction system that can correct data transmission errors on the fly.

Since ECC memory requires more processing, it can be slower than non-ECC RAM and basic parity RAM. However, ECC RAM provides more reliable data transfers, which results is greater system stability. Therefore, high-end servers and workstations may use ECC memory to minimize crashes and system downtime.

F

Fibre Channel - is a technology for transmitting data between computer devices at data rates of up to 4 Gbps (and 10 Gbps in the near future). Fibre Channel is especially suited for connecting computer servers to shared storage devices and for interconnecting storage controllers and drives. Since Fibre Channel is three times as fast, it has begun to replace the Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) as the transmission interface between servers and clustered storage devices. Fibre channel is more flexible; devices can be as far as ten kilometers (about six miles) apart if optical fiber is used as the physical medium. Optical fiber is not required for shorter distances, however, because Fibre Channel also works using coaxial cable and ordinary telephone twisted pair.

Fibre Channel offers point-to-point, switched, and loop interfaces. It is designed to interoperate with SCSI, the Internet Protocol (IP) and other protocols, but has been criticized for its lack of compatibility - primarily because (like in the early days of SCSI technology) manufacturers sometimes interpret specifications differently and vary their implementations.

Firewall - in computing, a firewall is software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not, based on a rule set. A network's firewall builds a bridge between the internal network or computer it protects, upon securing that the other network is secure and trusted, usually an external (inter)network, such as the Internet, that is not assumed to be secure and trusted.

Many personal computer operating systems include software-based firewalls to protect against threats from the public Internet. Many routers that pass data between networks contain firewall components and, conversely, many firewalls can perform basic routing functions

G

Gigabyte - The gigabyte (pron.: /ˈɡɪɡəbaɪt/ GIG-ə-byt or /ˈdʒɪɡəbaɪt/[1]) is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage.

The prefix giga means 109 in the International System of Units (SI), therefore 1 gigabyte is 1000000000bytes. The unit symbol for the gigabyte is GB. Historically, the term has also been used in some fields of computer science and information technology to denote the gibibyte, or 1073741824 (10243 or 230) bytes. For instance, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defined the unit accordingly for the use in power switchgear.[2] In 2000, however, IEEE adopted the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) recommendation, which uses the metric prefix interpretation.

Today the usage of the unit gigabyte continues to depend on the context. When referring to disk capacities it usually means 109 bytes, often stated explicitly on the manufacturer's permanent sticker. This also applies to data transmission quantities over telecommunication circuits, as the telecommunications and computer networking industries have always used the SI prefixes with their standards-based meaning. When referring to RAM sizes it most often (see binary prefix adoption) has a binary interpretation of 10243 bytes, i.e. as an alias for gibibyte. File systems and software often list file sizes or free space in some mixture of SI units and binary units; they sometimes use SI prefixes to refer to binary interpretation – that is using a label of gigabyte or GB for a number computed in terms of gibibytes (GiB), continuing the confusion.

In order to address this the International Electrotechnical Commission has been promoting the use of the term gibibyte for the binary definition. This position is endorsed by other standards organizations including the IEEE, the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), but the binary prefixes have seen limited acceptance. The JEDEC industry consortium continues to recommend the IEEE 100 nomenclature of using the metric prefixes kilo, mega and giga in their binary interpretation for memory manufacturing designations.

H

Hard Drive - The hard drive is what stores all your data. It houses the hard disk, where all your files and folders are physically located. A typical hard drive is only slightly larger than your hand, yet can hold over 100 GB of data. The data is stored on a stack of disks that are mounted inside a solid encasement. These disks spin extremely fast (typically at either 5400 or 7200 RPM) so that data can be accessed immediately from anywhere on the drive. The data is stored on the hard drive magnetically, so it stays on the drive even after the power supply is turned off.

The term "hard drive" is actually short for "hard disk drive." The term "hard disk" refers to the actual disks inside the drive. However, all three of these terms are usually seen as referring to the same thing -- the place where your data is stored. Since I use the term "hard drive" most often, that is the correct one to use.

I

ITIL - A comprehensive set of documents, which defines best practices and accepted techniques in the Information Technology community. This set of guidelines is widely used in both the public and private sector, essentially providingcompanies with a blueprint on how to organize and manage information technology operations at the company. The library is constantly updated to ensure accuracy and to include emerging technological advances.

IEEE - Abbreviation of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pronounced I-triple-E. Founded in 1884 as the AIEE, the IEEE was formed in 1963 when AIEE merged with IRE. IEEE is an organization composed of engineers , scientists, and students. The IEEE is best known for developing standards for the computer and electronics industry. In particular, the IEEE 802 standards for local-area networks are widely followed.

J

J2EE - Short for Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition. J2EE is a platform-independent,Java-centric environment from Sun for developing, building and deploying Web-based enterprise applications online. The J2EE platform consists of a set of services, APIs, and protocols that provide the functionality for developing multitiered, Web-based applications.

Some of the key features and services of J2EE:

At the client tier, J2EE supports pure HTML, as well as Java applets or applications. It relies on Java Server Pages and servlet code to create HTML or other formatted data for the client.

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs) provide another layer where the platform's logic is stored. An EJB server provides functions such as threading, concurrency, security and memory management. These services are transparent to the author.

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), which is the Java equivalent to ODBC, is the standard interface for Java databases. The Java servlet API enhances consistency for developers without requiring agraphical user interface.

Java - Java is a high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. It was originally designed for developing programs for set-top boxes and handheld devices, but later became a popular choice for creating web applications.

The Java syntax is similar to C++, but is strictly anobject-oriented programming language. For example, most Java programs contain classes, which are used to define objects, and methods, which are assigned to individual classes. Java is also known for being more strict than C++, meaning variables and functions must be explicitly defined. This means Java source code may produce errors or "exceptions" more easily than other languages, but it also limits other types of errors that may be caused by undefined variables or unassigned types.

Unlike Windows executables (.EXE files) or Macintosh applications (.APP files), Java programs are not run directly by the operating system. Instead, Java programs are interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine, or JVM, which runs on multiple platforms. This means all Java programs aremultiplatform and can run on different platforms, including Macintosh, Windows, and Unix computers. However, the JVM must be installed for Java applications or applets to run at all. Fortunately, the JVM is included as part of the Java Runtime Environment

Joomla - which is the http://www.answers.com/topic/english-language spelling of the http://www.answers.com/topic/swahili-language (and http://www.answers.com/topic/urdu: جملہ and Arabic: جملة) word jumla meaning "all together" or "as a whole", was announced to a mixed reception of 3000 faithful followers of the Development Team. It was chosen to reflect the commitment of the development team and community to the project.

K

Keylogger - is a program that records the keystrokes on a computer. It does this by monitoring a user's input and keeping a log of all keys that are pressed. The log may saved to a file or even sent to another machine over a network or the Internet.

Keylogger programs are often deemed spyware because they usually run without the user knowing it. They can be maliciously installed by hackers to spy on what a user is typing. By examining the keylog data, it may be possible to find private information such as a username and password combination. Therefore, keyloggers can be a significant security risk if they are unknowingly installed on a computer.

The best way to protect yourself from keylogger programs is to install anti-virus or security software that warns you when any new programs are being installed. You should also make sure no unauthorized people have access to your computer. This is especially true in work environments. You can also periodically check the current processes running on your computer to make sure no keyloggers or other malware programs are active. While it is unlikely that you have a keylogger programs installed on your computer, it is definitely worth it to check.

Kbps - stands for "Kilobits Per Second." Don't confuse this with Kilobytes per second (which is 8 times more data per second). This term is commonly used in describing data transfer rates. For example, two common modem speeds are 33.6 Kbps and 56 Kbps.

L

LAN - Stands for "Local Area Network," and is pronounced like "land" without the "d". (Computer people will think you're weird if you pronouce it "L-A-N"). A LAN is a computer network limited to a small area such as an office building, university, or even a residential home. Most mid to large-sized businesses today use LANs, which makes it easy for employees to share information. Currently, the most common type of LANs are Ethernet-based and use software from Novell or Oracle. However, with the emergence of wireless networking, wireless LANs have become a popular alternative.

LCD - Stands for "Liquid Crystal Display." LCDs are super-thin displays that are used in laptop computer screens and flat panel monitors. Smaller LCDs are used in handheld TVs, PDAs, and portable video game devices. The image on an LCD screen is created by sandwiching an electrically reactive substance between two electrodes. This color of this substance can be changed by increasing or reducing the electrical current. Since LCD screens are based on the principle of blocking light (rather than emitting it), they use up much less power than standard CRT (Cathode-Ray Tube) monitors

LDAP - Stands for "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol." If you want to make directory information available over the Internet, this is the way to do it. LDAP is a streamlined version of an earlier directory standard called X.500. What makes LDAP so useful is that it works great over TCP/IP networks (unlike X.500), so information can be accessed through LDAP by anyone with an Internet connection. It is also an open protocol, which means directories can be stored on any type of machine (i.e. Windows 2000, Red Hat Linux, Mac OS X).

M

Managed Services - is the practice of outsourcing day-to-day management responsibilities as a strategic method for improving operations. This can include outsourcing HR-activities, Production Support and lifecycle build/maintenance activities. The person or organization who owns or has direct oversight of the organization or system being managed is referred to as the offer-er, client, or customer. The person or organization that accepts and provides the managed service is regarded as the service provider.

Typically, the offeree remains accountable for the functionality and performance of managed service and does not relinquish the overall management responsibility of the organization or system.

N

NAT - Stands for "Network Address Translation." NAT translates the IP addresses of computers in a local network to a single IP address. This address is often used by the router that connects the computers to the Internet. The router can be connected to a DSL modem, cable modem, T1 line, or even a dial-up modem. When other computers on the Internet attempt to access computers within the local network, they only see the IP address of the router. This adds an extra level of security, since the router can be configured as a firewall, only allowing authorized systems to access the computers within the network.

Once a system from outside the network has been allowed to access a computer within the network, the IP address is then translated from the router's address to the computer's unique address. The address is found in a "NAT table" that defines the internal IP addresses of computers on the network. The NAT table also defines the global address seen by computers outside the network. Even though each computer within the local network has a specific IP address, external systems can only see one IP address when connecting to any of the computers within the network.

To simplify, network address translation makes computers outside the local area network (LAN) see only one IP address, while computers within the network can see each system's unique address. While this aids in network security, it also limits the number of IP addresses needed by companies and organizations. Using NAT, even large companies with thousands of computers can use a single IP address for connecting to the Internet. Now that's efficient.

NetBIOS - Stands for "Network Basic Input/Output System." NetBIOS was introduced in 1983 by IBM as an improvement to the standard BIOS used by Windows-based computers. The BIOS provides an interface between the computer's operating system and the hardware. As the name implies, NetBIOS adds support for networking, including the ability to recognize other devices connected to the network.

NetBIOS provides an API (Application Program Interface) for software developers to use. The NetBIOS API includes network-related functions and commands, which can be incorporated into software programs. For example, a programmer can use a prewritten NetBIOS function to enable a software program to access other devices on a network. This is much easier than writing the networking code from scratch. In other words, NetBIOS prevents programmers from having to "reinvent the wheel" just to get their program to connect to a network.

O

OEM - Stands for "Original Equipment Manufacturer." This refers to a company that produces hardware to be marketed under another company's brand name. For example, if Sony makes a monitor that will marketed by Dell, a "Dell" label will get stuck on the front, but the OEM of the monitor is Sony. You can also use the term as a verb, such as, "That Dell monitor over there is OEM'd by Sony." That should impress your friends.

Opacity - Opacity (pronounced "o-pass-ity," not o-pace-ity") describes how opaque an object is. While it is not specific to computer terminology, the term is often used in computer graphics software. For example, many programs include an "Opacity" setting that allows you to adjust the transparency of an image.

To understand opacity, it is important understand what "opaque" means. An opaque object is completely impervious to light, which means you cannot see through it. For example, a car door is completely opaque. The window above the door, however, is not opaque, since you can see through it. If the window is tinted, it is partially opaque and partially transparent. The less transparent the window is, the higher its opacity. In other words, transparency and opacity are inversely related.

Most digital images are 100% opaque. For example, if you open an image captured with a digital cameras, it will be completely opaque. However, you can use an image editing application to adjust the opacity of the image. This is especially useful when editing an image with multiple layers. For instance, Adobe Photoshop allows you to adjust the opacity for each layer from 0 to 100. 0 is completely transparent (or invisible), while 100 is completely opaque. By sliding the opacity of each layer somewhere in between 0 and 100, you can overlay multiple layers on top of each other, creating a multilayer image mosaic.

OOP - Stands for "Object-Oriented Programming." OOP (not Oops!) refers to a programming methodology based on objects, instead of just functions and procedures. These objects are organized into classes, which allow individual objects to be group together. Most modern programming languages including Java, C/C++, and PHP, are object-oriented languages, and many older programming languages now have object-oriented versions...

An "object" in an OOP language refers to a specific type, or "instance," of a class. Each object has a structure similar to other objects in the class, but can be assigned individual characteristics. An object can also call functions, or methods, specific to that object. For example, the source code of a video game may include a class that defines the structure of characters in the game. Individual characters may be defined as objects, which allows them to have different appearances, skills, and abilities. They may also perform different tasks in the game, which are run using each object's specific methods.

Object-oriented programming makes it easier for programmers to structure and organize software programs. Because individual objects can be modified without affecting other aspects of the program, it is also easier to update and change programs written in object-oriented languages. As software programs have grown larger over the years, OOP has made developing these large programs more manageable.

Oracle - Based in Redwood, California, Oracle Corporation is the largest software company whose primary business is database products. Historically, Oracle has targeted high-end workstations and minicomputers as the serverplatforms to run its database systems. Its relational database was the first to support the SQL language, which has since become the industry standard.

Along with Sun Microsystems, Oracle has been one of the leading champions of network computers.

P

P2P - Stands for "Peer to Peer." In a P2P network, the "peers" are computer systems which are connected to each other via the Internet. Files can be shared directly between systems on the network without the need of a central server. In other words, each computer on a P2P network becomes a file server as well as a client.

The only requirements for a computer to join a peer-to-peer network are an Internet connection and P2P software. Common P2P software programs include Kazaa, Limewire, BearShare, Morpheus, and Acquisition. These programs connect to a P2P network, such as "Gnutella," which allows the computer to access thousands of other systems on the network.

Once connected to the network, P2P software allows you to search for files on other people's computers. Meanwhile, other users on the network can search for files on your computer, but typically only within a single folder that you have designated to share. While P2P networking makes file sharing easy and convenient, is also has led to a lot of software piracy and illegal music downloads. Therefore, it is best to be on the safe side and only download software and music from legitimate websites.

Parse - No, this is not a typo of the word "sparse." The word "parse" means to analyze an object specifically. It is commonly used in computer science to refer to reading program code. For example, after a program is written, whether it be in C++, Java, or any other language, the code needs to be parsed by the compiler in order to be compiled. Web scripts, written in scripting languages such as Perl or PHP, need to be parsed on the Web server so that they can output the correct HTML to a user's browser.

Parsing can also refer to breaking up ordinary text. For example, search engines typically parse search phrases entered by users so that they can more accurately search for each word. Some programs can parse text documents and extract certain information like names or addresses. Spreadsheet programs can turn formatted documents into tables with rows and columns by parsing the text. As you can see, the ways to parse are clearly not sparse.

Partition - A partition is a section of a hard disk. When you format a hard disk, you can usually choose the number of partitions you want. The computer will recognize each partition as a separate disk, and each will show up under "My Computer" (Windows) or on the desktop (Macintosh).

So why would you want to create multiple partitions? Well, there are two main reasons. One is if you want to have multiple operating systems on your computer. Typically, an operating system needs to be installed on its own partition so that it won't conflict with other operating systems on the machine. The other reason is that multiple partitions can improve the efficiency of your hard disk. On larger disks, the cluster or block size (which is the minimum amount of space a file can take up), is larger than on small disks. This can result in a waste of disk space if you have a lot of small files. So creating multiple partitions can actually give you more space. Yep, more room for all those MP3s. "Partition" can also be used as a verb, meaning to create multiple partitions.

Q

QoS - QoS (Quality of Service) refers to a broad collection of networking technologies and techniques. The goal of QoS is to provide guarantees on the ability of a network to deliver predictable results. Elements of network performance within the scope of QoS often include availability (uptime), bandwidth (throughput), latency (delay), and error rate.

QoS involves prioritization of network traffic. QoS can be targeted at a network interface, toward a given server or router's performance, or in terms of specific applications. A network monitoring system must typically be deployed as part of QoS, to insure that networks are performing at the desired level.

QoS is especially important for the new generation of Internet applications such as VoIP, video-on-demand and other consumer services. Some core networking technologies like Ethernet were not designed to support prioritized traffic or guaranteed performance levels, making it much more difficult to implement QoS solutions across the Internet.

R

RAM - Stands for "Random Access Memory," and is pronounced like the male sheep. RAM is made up of small memory chips that form a memory module. These modules are installed in the RAM slots on the motherboard of your computer.

Every time you open a program, it gets loaded from the hard drive into the RAM. This is because reading data from the RAM is much faster than reading data from the hard drive. Running programs from the RAM of the computer allows them to function without any lag time. The more RAM your computer has, the more data can be loaded from the hard drive into the RAM, which can effectively speed up your computer. In fact, adding RAM can be more beneficial to your computer's performance than upgrading the CPU.

RDF - Stands for "Resource Description Framework." RDF is a specification that defines how metadata, or descriptive information, should be formatted. The RDF model uses a subject-predicate-object format, which is a standardized way of describing something. For example, an RDF expression may read, "The computer has a hard drive that stores 250GB." "The computer" is the subject, "has a hard drive that stores" is the predicate, and "250GB" is the object.

RDF formatting is used in RSS feeds, which contain short descriptions of Web pages. The RDF standard helps ensure each description contains the subject, predicate, and object necessary to describe the page's content. While humans do not require descriptions to be formatted in such a specific way (we would actually find it rather monotonous), computers benefit from the standard formatting. For example, it makes it easier for computer systems to sort and index RSS feeds based on the RDF descriptions. The end result is more accurate results when people search for articles using keywords.

S

SAP HANA cloud platform - The SAP HANA Cloud Platform, a next generation cloud platform, is based on breakthrough in-memory technology from SAP. Developers can quickly build impactful, highly scalable applications that leverage embedded analytics as well as massive speed and scale of SAP HANA. The apps deliver impactful experiences, including instant mobile access, that delight users and meet any business need.

Enable next generation apps with SAP HANA AppServices using multiple languages and frameworks that natively integrate with your on premise systems

SAP FICO module - SAP FICO module refers to the Finance(FI) and Controlling(CO) modules of SAP ERP system. FI and CO are the core modules of SAP. They are tightly integrated with Sales and Distribution Module ( SD) and Materials management module.

SAP FI - SAP Financial Accounting (FI) is the core module where all the financial processing transactions are captured. This is the module that is used to create statutory Financials Statements for external reporting purposes.

SAP Controlling - SAP Controlling module helps provide operational information to the management of a company to support business analysis and decision-making. CO represents the internal accounting viewpoint of an organisation. It provide information to managers to help manage costs and operations of the organization.

Site to Site Replication - in computing involves sharing information so as to ensure consistency between redundant resources, such as software or hardware components, to improve reliability, fault-tolerance, or accessibility.

SSD (Solid State Drive) - A solid-state drive (SSD) (also known as a solid-state disk or electronic disk, though it contains no actual "disk" of any kind) is a data storage device using integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives.

SSDs have no moving mechanical components, which distinguish them from traditional electromechanical magnetic disks such as hard disk drives (HDDs) or floppy disks, which contain spinning disks and movable read/write heads.[5] Compared with electromechanical disks, SSDs are typically less susceptible to physical shock, run more quietly, have lower access time, and less latency. However, while the price of SSDs has continued to decline in 2012, SSDs are still about 7 to 8 times more expensive per unit of storage than HDDs.

Many SSDs use I/O interfaces developed for hard disk drives, thus permitting simple replacement in common applications.

Subnet - is a logical grouping of connected network devices. Nodes on a subnet tend to be located in close physical proximity to each other on a LAN.

Network designers employ subnets as a way to partition networks into logical segments for greater ease of administration. When subnets are properly implemented, both the performance and security of networks can be improved.

In Internet Protocol (IP) networking, devices on a subnet share contiguous ranges of IP address numbers. A mask (known as the subnet mask or network mask) defines the boundaries of an IP subnet. The correspondence between subnet masks and IP address ranges follows defined mathematical formulas. IT professionals use subnet calculators to map between masks and addresses.

T

Thin Client - (sometimes also called a lean or slim client) is a computer or a computer program which depends heavily on some other computer (its server) to fulfill its computational roles. This is different from the traditional fat client, which is a computer designed to take on these roles by itself. The specific roles assumed by the server may vary, from providing data persistence (for example, for diskless nodes) to actual information processing on the client's behalf.

Thin clients occur as components of a broader computer infrastructure, where many clients share their computations with the same server. As such, thin client infrastructures can be viewed as providing some computing service via several user interfaces. This is desirable in contexts where individual fat clients have much more functionality or power than the infrastructure requires.

Thin-client computing is also a way of easily maintaining computational services at a reduced total cost of ownership.

The most common type of modern thin client is a low-end computer terminal which only provides a graphical user interface to the end user. The remaining functionality, in particular the operating system, is provided by the server.

U

UAT - Stands for "User Acceptance Testing." UAT is a process designed to help ensure products will meet user expectations when they are released. It involves running a product through a series of specific tests that help indicate whether or not the product will meet the needs of its users. While the user acceptance testing process can be applied to any type of product, in the computer industry, it is most often associated with software programs.

Software applications typically go through multiple development stages before being released to the general public. These stages include the initial development process, the alpha testing stage, the beta testing stage, the release candidate stage, and the public release of the software. Not every software program goes through each one of these stages, but most software programs are tested by multiple users before they are released.

The primary UAT stages of software development include the alpha and beta testing stages. In the alpha testing stage, a limited number of users within (and possibly outside) a company test an early version of software for bugs and user interface issues. In the beta testing stage, a larger group of users (usually outside the company) test the software and provide feedback, including bug reports and usability issues. This feedback lets the software company know if the product is meeting user expectations and enables the development team to make the necessary revisions before the official release.

Because software is relatively easy to modify and update (unlike hardware products), user acceptance testing may continue even after a software program is released. Many programs now include feedback and bug submission forms directly within the software, which allow users to provide feedback as they use the software.

UDP - Stands for "User Datagram Protocol." It is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols used for data transferring. UDP is a known as a "stateless" protocol, meaning it doesn't acknowledge that the packets being sent have been received. For this reason, the UDP protocol is typically used for streaming media. While you might see skips in video or hear some fuzz in audio clips, UDP transmission prevents the playback from stopping completely.

V

Vitrual SAN Storage - in computer networking, a virtual storage area network (VSAN) is a collection of ports from a set of connected Fibre Channel switches, that form a virtual fabric. Ports within a single switch can be partitioned into multiple VSANs, despite sharing hardware resources. Conversely, multiple switches can join a number of ports to form a single VSAN.

VSANs were designed by Cisco, modelled after the virtual local area network (VLAN) concept in Ethernet networking. In October 2004, the Technical Committee T11 approved VSAN technology into the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the standard.

A VSAN, like each FC fabric, can offer different high-level protocols such as FCP, FCIP, FICON, iSCSI. Each VSAN is a separate self-contained fabric using distinctive security policies, zones, events, memberships, and name services. Traffic is also separate.

Unlike a typical fabric that is resized switch-by-switch, a VSAN can be resized port-by-port.

The use of VSANs allows traffic to be isolated within specific portions of the network. If a problem occurs in one VSAN, that problem can be handled with a minimum of disruption to the rest of the network. VSANs can also be configured separately and independently.

VDI-Virtual Desktop - Desktop virtualization is software technology that separates the desktop environment and associated application software from the physical client device that is used to access it.

Desktop virtualization can be used in conjunction with application virtualization and (Windows) user profile management systems, now termed "user virtualization," to provide a comprehensive desktop environment management system. In this mode, all the components of the desktop are virtualized, which allows for a highly flexible and much more secure desktop delivery model. In addition, this approach supports a more complete desktop disaster recovery strategy as all components are essentially saved in the data center and backed up through traditional redundant maintenance systems. If a user's device or hardware is lost, the restore is much more straightforward and simple, because basically all the components will be present at login from another device. In addition, because no data is saved to the user's device, if that device is lost, there is much less chance that any critical data can be retrieved and compromised. Below are more detailed descriptions of the types of desktop virtualization technologies that will be used in a typical deployment.

W

WAN - stands for "Wide Area Network." It is similar to a Local Area Network (LAN), but it's a lot bigger. Unlike LANs, WANs are not limited to a single location. Many wide area networks span long distances via telephone lines, fiber-optic cables, or satellite links. They can also be composed of smaller LANs that are interconnected. The Internet could be described as the biggest WAN in the world. You could even call the Internet a Super WAN BAM if you wanted to.

WiMAX - type of wireless technology that provides wireless internetservice over longer distances than standardWi-Fi. WiMax is based on standard IEEE 802.16 technology and can provide broadband wireless access up to 30 miles. WiMax uses fixed and mobile stations to provide users with access to high-speed voice, data, and Internet connectivity. WiMax technology has not been widely accepted by the technology community, but its popularity continues to grow as businesses and consumers seek out better ways to constantly stay connected.

X

X86 - x86 is the generic name for Intel processors released after the original 8086 processor. These include the 286, 386, 486, and 586 processors. As you can see, the "x" in x86 stands for a range of possible numbers. Technically, x86 is short for 80x86 since the full names of the processors are actually 80286, 80386, 80486, and 80586. The "80" is typically truncated to avoid redundancy.

If a computer's technical specifications state that is based on the x86 architecture, that means it uses an Intel processor (not AMD or PowerPC). Since Intel's x86 processors are backwards compatible, newer x86 processors can run all the programs that older processors could run. However, older processors may not be able to run software that has been optimized for newer x86 processors.

While numbers provide a simple way to distinguish between processor types, they cannot be trademarked. For this reason, Intel's 586 processor is formally known as the Pentium processor. However, software developers still often refer to processors by their number. Of course, what else would you expect from computer nerds?

XHTML - Stands for "Extensible Hypertext Markup Language." Yes, apparently "Extensible" starts with an "X." XHTML is a spinoff of the hypertext markup language (HTML) used for creating Web pages. It is based on the HTML 4.0 syntax, but has been modified to follow the guidelines of XML, the Extensible Markup Language. Therefore, XHTML 1.0 is sometimes referred to as HTML 5.0.

Because XHTML is "extensible," Web developers can create their own objects and tags for each Web page they build. This gives the developers more control over the appearance and organization of their Web pages. The only requirement is that the custom tags and attributes are defined in a document type definition (DTD), that is referenced by the XHTML page.

XHTML pages must also conform to a more strict syntax than regular HTML pages. While Web browsers are rather lenient and forgiving of HTML syntax, XHTML pages must have perfect syntax. This means no missing quotes or incorrect capitalization in the markup language. While the strict syntax requires more meticulous Web page creation, it also ensures Web pages will appear more uniform across different browser platforms.

Y

Y2K - stands for "Year 2000." However, this term is more often used to refer to the "Millenium Bug." This bug is a little creature that lives inside older computers. When the year 2000 rolls around, the little bug will self-destruct, blowing up the computer it was residing in. The chain of explosions across the world will be catastrophic, causing global panamonia and LA riots. Also associated with Y2K is the end of the world, which is without doubt, foreshadowed by the dredded Millenium Bug. So, on January 1, 2000, you'll want to make sure you have at least a 5 year's supply of food and water, roughly half a million dollars in cash, and at least 200 acres of land somewhere in Montana. Of course, it doesn't really matter, considering the world will have ended anyway.

Yottabyte - one yottabyte (abbreviated "YB") is equal to 1,000 zettabytes and is the largest SI unit of measurement used for measuring data. It is slightly smaller than its IEC-standardized counterpart, the yobibyte, which contains 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes (280) bytes.

A single yottabyte contains one septillion, or one trillion times one trillion bytes, which is the same as one trillion terabytes. It is also a number larger than any human can comprehend. There is no need for a unit of measurement larger than a yottabyte because there is simply no practical use for such a large measurement. Even all the data in the world consists of just a few zettabytes.

Z

Zebibyte - A zebibyte is a unit of data storage that equals 2 to the 70th power, or 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes.

While a zettabyte can be estimated as 10^21 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes, a zebibyte is exactly 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes. This is to avoid the ambiguity associated with the size of zettabytes. A zebibyte is 1,024 exbibytes and precedes the yobibyte unit of measurement.

Zip - Windows users will see this term a lot when looking for files on the Internet. A zip file (.zip) is a "zipped" or compressed file. For example, when you download a file, if the filename looks like this: "filename.zip," you are downloading a zipped file. "Zipping" a file involves compressing one or more items into a smaller archive. A zipped file takes up less hard drive space and takes less time to transfer to another computer. This is why most Windows files that you find on the Internet are compressed.

To use a zipped file, you'll need to unzip it first. PKZIP for DOS, or WinZip for Windows, are some popular programs that can unzip files for you. Fortunately, these programs can be downloaded for free from Web sites like Download.com. Macintosh files are most often "stuffed" into Stuffit files (.sit), which can be "unstuffed" using Aladdin's Stuffit Expander.

The term "Zip" also refers to a product by Iomega. The company makes a removable storage device called a Zip Drive. Depending on the model, these drives can hold 100, 250 or 750 MB Zip disks. They are usually used for backup and for transferring large files to different locations. However, Zip drives are not as fast as hard drives, so it is usually not a good idea to run programs off them.

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